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2017年英语a级考试试题(新编)1

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2017年英语a级考试试题(新编)1

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1

Einstein Named "Person of the Century"

Albert Einstein, whose theories on space time and matter helped unravel (解决) the secrets of the atom and of the universe, was chosen as "Person of the Century" by Time magazine on Sunday.

A man whose very name is synonymous ( 同义的) with scientific genius, Einstein has come to represent more than any other person the flowering of 20th century scientific though that set the stage for the age of technology. "The world has changed far more in the past 100 years than in any other century in history. The reason is not political or economic, but technological—technologies that flowed directly from advances in basic science," wrote theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking in a Time essay explaining Einstein's significance. __________ (46)

Time chose as runner-up President Franklin Roosevelt to represent the triumph of freedom and democracy over fascism, and Mahatma Gandhi as an icon (象征) for a century when civil and human rights became crucial factors in global politics.

"What we saw was Franklin Roosevelt embodying the great theme of freedom's fight against totalitarianism, Gandhi personifying ( 象征, 体现 ) the great theme of individuals struggling for their rights, and Einstein being both a great genius and a great symbol of a scientific revolution that brought with it amazing technological advances that helped expand the growth of freedom," said Time Magazine Editor Walter Isaacson.

Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879. __________ (47) He was slow to learn to speak and did not do well in elementary school. He could not stomach organized learning and loathed taking exams. In 1905, however, he was to publish a theory which stands as one of the most intricate examples of human imagination in history. __________ (48) Everything else- mass,weight, space, even time itself-- is a variable (变量) . And he offered the world his now-famous equation ( 公式 ) : energy equals mass times the speed of light squared--E= mc2.

__________ (49) "There was less faith in absolutes, not only of time and space but also of truth and morality." Einstein's famous equation was also the seed that led to the development of atomic energy and weapons. In 1939, six years after he fled European fascism and settled at Princeton University, Einstein, an avowed pacifist, signed a letter to President Roosevelt urging the United States to develop an atomic bomb before Nazi Germany did. __________ (50) Einstein did not work on the project. Einstein died in Princeton, New Jersey in 1955.

A. "Indirectly, relativity paved the way for a new relativism in morality, art and politics,"Isaacson wrote in an essay explaining Time's choices.

B. How he thought of the relativity theory influenced the general public's view about Albert Einstein.

C. "Clearly, no scientist better represents those advances than Albert Einstein."

D. Roosevelt heeded the advice and formed the "Manhattan Project" that secretly developed the first atomic weapon.

E. In his early years, Einstein did not show the promise of what he was to become.

F. In his "Special Theory of Relativity", Einstein described how the only constant in the universe is the speed of light.

2

Mt. Desert Island

The coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world. A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northernmost coastal city would measure about 225 miles. If you followed the coastline between these points, you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline __________ (46). At that time, the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier (冰川) descended, however, it expended enormous force on those mountains, and they sank into the sea.

As the mountains sank, ocean water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining !and,forming a series of twisting inlets and lagoons (咸水湖. The highest parts of the former mountain range, nearest the shore, remained as islands. __________ (47) Marine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level, indicating the level of the shoreline prior to the glacier.

The 2,500-mile-long rocky coastline of Marine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands.

Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited, but many are home to thriving communities. Mt.Desert Island is one of the largest, most beautiful of the Maine coast islands. Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles, Mt. Desert was essentially formed as two distinct islands. __________ (48)

For years, Mt. Desert island, particularly its major settlement, Bar Harbor, afforded summer home for the wealthy. Recently though, Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well. But, the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park.

Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate (温带) and sub-Arctic zones,the island supports the plants and animals of both zones as well as beach, inland, and alpine ( 高山的) plants. __________ (49) The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people, not just the wealthy. Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping, cycling, and boating. Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum, learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.

The best view on Mt. Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain. __________ (50)From the summit, you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier.

A. It also lies in a major bird migration lane and is a resting spot for many birds.

B. Mt. Desert Island is one of the most famous of all of the islands left behind by the glacier.

C. The wealthy residents of Mt. Desert Island selfishly keep it to themselves.

D. The term comes from the activity of the ile age.

E. This mountain rises 1,532 feet, making it the highest mountain on the Atlantic seashore.

F. It is split almost in half by Sones Sond, a deep and narrow stretch of water, seven miles long.

3

Why Would They Falsely Confess?

Why on earth would an innocent person falsely confess to committing a crime? To most people, it just doesn't seem logical. But it is logical, say experts, if you understand what call happen in a police interrogation (审讯) room. Under the right conditions, people's minds are susceptible (易受影响的) to influence, and the pressure put on suspects during police questioning is enormous. __________ (46) "The pressure is important to understand, because otherwise it's impossible to understand why someone would say he did something he didn't do.The answer is: to put all end to an uncomfortable situation that will continue until he does confess.

Developmental psychologist Mary Redlich recently conducted a laboratory study to determine how likely people are to confess to things they didn't do. __________ (47) the researchers then intentionally crashed the computers and accused the participants of hitting "alt" key to see if they would sign a statement falsely taking responsibility. Redlich's findings clearly demonstrate how easy it can be to get people to falsely 59 percent of the young adults in the experiment immediately confessed. __________ (48) Of the 15-to 16-year-olds, 72 percent signed confessions, as13-year-olds.

"There's no question that young people are more at risk,"says Saul Kassin, a psychology professor at Williams College, who has done similar studies with similar. __________ (49) Both Kassin and Redlich note that the entire "interrogation" in their experiments consisted of a simple accusation-- not hours of aggressive questioning-- and still, most participants falsely decision."

(50) "In some ways," "says Kassin,'"'false confession becomes a rational."

A. In her experiment, participants were seated at computers and told not to hit the"alt" key,because doing So would crash the systems.

B. Because of the stress of a police interrogation, they conclude, suspects can become convinced that falsely confessing is the easiest way out of a bad situation.

C. "It's a little like somebody's working on them with a dental (牙齿) drill," says Franklin Zimring, a law professor at the University of California at Berkeley.

D. "But the baseline is that adults are highly vulnerable too."

E. The court found him innocent and he was released.

F. Redlich also found that the younger the participant, the more likely a false confession.

4

Hitchhiking (打车旅游)

When I was in my teens (十几岁) and 20s, hitchhiking was a main form. of long-distance transport. The kindness or curiosity of strangers __________ (51) me all over Europe, North America, Asia and southern Africa. Some of the lift-givers became friends, many provided hospitality __________ (52) the road.

Not only did you fred out much more about a country than __________ (53)traveling by train or plane, but also there was that element of excitement about where you would finish up that night.

Hitchhiking featured importantly in Western culture. It has books and songs about it. So what has happened to __________ (54)?

A few years ago, I asked the same question about hitchhiking in a column on a newspaper.__________ (55) of people from all over the world responded with their view on the state of hitchhiking.

"If there is a hitchhiker's __________ (56) it must be Ireland," came one reply. Rural Ireland was recommended as a friendly place for hitchhiking, __________ (57) was Quebec, Canada -- "if you don't mind being berated (严厉指责) for not speaking French."

But while hitchhiking was clearly still alive and well in many parts of the world, the __________ (58)feeling was that throughout much of the west it was doomed (消亡).

With so much news about crime in the media, people assumed that anyone on the open road without the money for even a bus ticket must present a danger. But do we __________ (59) to be.so wary both to hitchhike and to give a lift?

In Poland in the 1960s, __________ (60) a Polish woman who e-mailed me, "the authorities introduced the Hitchhiker's Booklet. The booklet contained coupons for drivers, so each time a driver__________ (61) somebody, he or she received a coupon. At the end of the season, __________ (62)who had picked up the most hikers were rewarded with various prizes. Everybody was hitchhiking then."

Surely this is a good idea for society. Hitchhiking would increase respect by breaking down __________ (63) between strangers. It would help fight __________ (64) warming by cutting down on fuel consumption as hitchhikers would be using existing fuels. It would also improve educational standards by delivering instant (65) in geography, history, politics and sociology.

51. A. made

B. took

C. traveled

D. crossed

52. A. above

B. over

C. at

D. on

53. A. when

B. after

C. before

D. until

54. A. the books

B. them

C. it

D. the songs

55. A. Hundreds

B. Hundred

C. Thousand

D. Dozen

56. A. sky

B. space

C. map

D. heaven

57. A. like

B. as

C. for

D. since

58. A. big

B. large

C. general

D. little

59. A. have to

B. must

C. should

D. need

60. A. according to

B. owing to

C. due to

D. with respect to

61. A. sent

B. picked up

C. selected

D. brought

62. A. passengers

B. hikers

C. drivers

D. strangers

63. A. fences

B. barriers

C. gaps

D. stones

64. A. global

B. total

C. entire

D. whole

65. A. discussions

B. debates

C. consultations

D. lessons

5

Reform. on the Road

Will the reform. on the use of government cars really reduce office expenditure __________ (51)this account? There are no reports __________ (52) such an outcome although some local governments have moved in that direction.

Hangzhou government __________ (53) its reform. last month. Officials below the level of deputy bureau chief cannot use official cars for business trips.

Instead they get subsidies between 300 and 2,600 yuan a month according to their administrative rank. This reform. is supposed to save the government the money involving in __________ (54) a large number of cars.

Hangzhou in east China Zhejiang province is not the first to attempt __________ (55) reform.

Nanjing, capital of the neighboring Jiangsu province, did so five years ago, yet there is no report available of how much money the Nanjing government has saved. __________ (56) these measures.

All that we know about is the fact __________ (57) government officials get monthly subsidies for business trips.

The public have a fight to __________ (58) for transparency on the results of such reform__________ (59) it is taxpayers' money that is being spent. Transparency ( 透明度 ) is needed because people are __________ (60) about policy-makers making policy against their own interests.

Obviously, the subsidies are not based on work needs. Lower level officials usually travel__________ (61) than high-ranking officials. Therefore, the impact of reform. appears to be diluted.

Transparency alone can tell us __________ (62) the reform. measures have indeed reduced government transport expenditure. If there is no disclosure of amounts saved by the reform, the public may have reason to suspect that the reform. is actually a poly (手段) __________ (63) theincome of officials in the form. of a transport subsidy.

The way government cars are used needs to be reformed. The government spending on purchase of cars was 80 billion yuan in 2008, and use and maintenance amounts to around 300 billion yuan a year.

A study of ancient Chinese dynasties shows that the more reforms of the tax system, the heavier the taxes eventually __________ (64) on subjects.

The only way to prevent this vicious cycles (恶性循环) from happening with government car reform. today is for the higher authorities to have a strict and __________ (65) audit of local finance.

51. A. on

B. in

C. about

D. to

52. A. indicates

B. indicating

C. indicated

D. indicate

53. A. completed

B. terminated

C. launched

D. finished

54. A. maintaining

B. maintained

C. maintenance

D. maintain

55. A. such a

B. as such

C. such that

D. such

56. A. by

B. on

C. through

D. in

57. A. which

B. whether

C. in which

D. that

58. A. providing

B. offering

C. supplying

D. asking

59. A. because

B. therefore

C. because of

D. thus

60. A. satisfied

B. pleased

C. skeptical

D. confused

61. A. less

B. more

C. faster

D. farther

62. A. how

B. which

C. that

D. whether

63. A. increased

B. to be increased

C. to increase

D. increase

64. A. levied

B. taken

C. consumed

D. removed

65. A. opaque

B. transparent

C. obscure

D. ambiguous

6

Animal's "Sixth Sense"

A tsunami was triggered by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December, 2004. it killed tens of thousands of people in Asia and East Africa. Wild animals, __________ (51), seem to have escaped that terrible tsunami. This phenomenon adds weight to notions that they possess a "sixth sense" for __________ (52), experts said.

Sri Lankan wildlife officials have said the giant waves that killed over 24,000 people along the Indian Ocean island's coast clearly __________ (53) wild beasts, with no dead animals found.

"No elephants are dead, not __________ (54) a dead rabbit. I think animals can __________ (55)disaster. They have a sixth sense. They know when things are happening," H.D. Ratnayake,deputy director of Sri Lanka's Wildlife Department, said about one month after the tsunami attack.

The __________ (56) washed floodwaters up to 2 miles inland at Yala National Park in the ravaged southeast, Sri Lanka's biggest wildlife __________ (57) and home to hundreds of wild elephants and several leopards.

"There have been a lot of __________ (58) evidence about dogs barking or birds migrating before volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. But i,t has not been proven," said Matthew van Lierop, an animal behavior. __________ (59) at Johannesburg Zoo.

"There have been no __________ (60) studies because you can't really test it in a lab or field setting," he told Reuters. Other authorities concurred with this __________ (61).

"Wildlife seem to be able to pick up certain __________ (62), especially birds ... there are many reports of birds detecting impending disasters," said Clive Walker, who has written several books on African wildlife.

Animals __________ (63) rely on the known senses such as smell or hearing to avoid danger such as predators.

The notion of an animal "sixth sense" -- or __________ (64) other mythical power--is an enduring one which the evidence on Sri Lanka's ravaged coast is likely to add to.

The Romans saw owls __________ (65) omens of impending disaster and many ancient cultures viewed elephants as sacred animals endowed with special powers or attributes.

51. A. therefore

B. however

C. although

D. whatever

52. A. shelters

B. foods

C. disasters

D. water

53. A. missed

B. protected

C. raised

D. caught

54. A. such

B. too

C. so

D. even

55. A. feel

B. see

C. hear

D. sense

56. A. waves

B. tides

C. winds

D. rivers

57. A. birthplaces

B. playground

C. reserve

D. storage

58. A. experimental

B. apparent

C. scientific

D. chemical

59. A. specialist

B. assistant

C. supporter

D. sponsor

60. A. additional

B. specific

C. especial

D. exceptional

61. A. modification

B. detection

C. assessment

D. value

62. A. route

B. behavior

C. principle

D. phenomenon

63. A. unwillingly

B. occasionally

C. doubtfully

D. certainly

64. A. some

B. much

C. many

D. few

65. A. on

B. as

C. for

D. in

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